The New England Journal of Medicine recently published a study that shows the comparative effectiveness of treatments for prostate cancer that is detected by PSA testing remains uncertain. The study compared localized prostate cancer treatments including active monitoring, radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiotherapy. A total of 82,429 men ages 50 to 69 received a PSA test between 1999 and 2009. Of this group, 2,664 were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer and 1,643 underwent randomization to active monitoring, surgery or radiotherapy. At a median of 10 years, the prostate-cancer-specific mortality was low regardless of the treatment, and there was no significant difference between the treatments.